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In Massachusetts, a successful merchant class began to develop that was less religiously motivated than the colony's early settlers.

Indeed, Puritans held the belief that men and women were equal in the eyes of God, but not in the eyes of the Devil.

Women's souls were seen as unprotected in their weak and vulnerable bodies. Several factors may explain why women were more likely to admit guilt of witchcraft than men.

Historian Elizabeth Reis asserts that some likely believed they had truly given in to the Devil, and others might have believed they had done so temporarily.

However, because those who confessed were reintegrated into society, some women might have confessed in order to spare their own lives.

Quarrels with neighbors often incited witchcraft allegations. One example of this is Abigail Faulkner, who was accused in Faulkner admitted she was "angry at what folk said," and the Devil may have temporarily overtaken her, causing harm to her neighbors.

Cotton Mather , a minister of Boston's North Church was a prolific publisher of pamphlets, including some that expressed his belief in witchcraft.

In his book Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcrafts and Possessions , Mather describes his "oracular observations" and how "stupendous witchcraft" had affected the children of Boston mason John Goodwin.

Mather illustrates how the Goodwins' eldest child had been tempted by the devil and had stolen linen from the washerwoman Goody Glover.

After the event, four out of six Goodwin children began to have strange fits, or what some people referred to as "the disease of astonishment.

Symptoms included neck and back pains, tongues being drawn from their throats, and loud random outcries; other symptoms included having no control over their bodies such as becoming limber, flapping their arms like birds, or trying to harm others as well as themselves.

These symptoms would fuel the craze of In Salem Village in February , Betty Parris age nine and her cousin Abigail Williams age 11 , the daughter and the niece, respectively, of Reverend Samuel Parris, began to have fits described as "beyond the power of epileptic fits or natural disease to effect" by John Hale , the minister of the nearby town of Beverly.

The girls complained of being pinched and pricked with pins. A doctor, historically assumed to be William Griggs , [14] could find no physical evidence of any ailment.

Other young women in the village began to exhibit similar behaviors. When Lawson preached as a guest in the Salem Village meetinghouse, he was interrupted several times by the outbursts of the afflicted.

Some historians believe that the accusation by Ann Putnam, Jr. At the time, a vicious rivalry was underway between the Putnam and Porter families, one which deeply polarized the people of Salem.

Citizens would often have heated debates, which escalated into full-fledged fighting, based solely on their opinion of the feud. Good was a destitute woman accused of witchcraft because of her reputation.

At her trial, she was accused of rejecting Puritan ideals of self-control and discipline when she chose to torment and "scorn [children] instead of leading them towards the path of salvation".

Sarah Osborne rarely attended church meetings. She was accused of witchcraft because the Puritans believed that Osborne had her own self-interests in mind following her remarriage to an indentured servant.

The citizens of the town disapproved of her trying to control her son's inheritance from her previous marriage.

Tituba, an enslaved South American Indian woman from the West Indies , likely became a target because of her ethnic differences from most of the other villagers.

She was accused of attracting girls like Abigail Williams and Betty Parris with stories of enchantment from Malleus Maleficarum.

These tales about sexual encounters with demons, swaying the minds of men, and fortune-telling were said to stimulate the imaginations of girls and made Tituba an obvious target of accusations.

Each of these women was a kind of outcast and exhibited many of the character traits typical of the "usual suspects" for witchcraft accusations; they were left to defend themselves.

Brought before the local magistrates on the complaint of witchcraft, they were interrogated for several days, starting on March 1, , then sent to jail.

Martha Corey had expressed skepticism about the credibility of the girls' accusations and thus drawn attention. If such upstanding people could be witches, the townspeople thought, then anybody could be a witch, and church membership was no protection from accusation.

Dorothy Good, the daughter of Sarah Good , was only four years old but was not exempted from questioning by the magistrates; her answers were construed as a confession that implicated her mother.

In Ipswich, Rachel Clinton was arrested for witchcraft at the end of March on independent charges unrelated to the afflictions of the girls in Salem Village.

The men were both local magistrates and also members of the Governor's Council. During the proceedings, objections by Elizabeth's husband, John Proctor , resulted in his arrest that day.

Abigail Hobbs, Mary Warren, and Deliverance Hobbs all confessed and began naming additional people as accomplices. Nehemiah Abbott, Jr. Mary Eastey was released for a few days after her initial arrest because the accusers failed to confirm that it was she who had afflicted them; she was arrested again when the accusers reconsidered.

In May, accusations continued to pour in, but some of the suspects began to evade apprehension. Until this point, all the proceedings were investigative, but on May 27, , William Phips ordered the establishment of a Special Court of Oyer and Terminer for Suffolk, Essex and Middlesex counties to prosecute the cases of those in jail.

Warrants were issued for more people. Sarah Osborne, one of the first three persons accused, died in jail on May 10, When the Court of Oyer and Terminer convened at the end of May, the total number of people in custody was Cotton Mather wrote to one of the judges, John Richards , a member of his congregation, on May 31, , [50] expressing his support of the prosecutions, but cautioning him,.

It is very certain that the Devils have sometimes represented the Shapes of persons not only innocent, but also very virtuous.

Though I believe that the just God then ordinarily provides a way for the speedy vindication of the persons thus abused. Bridget Bishop's case was the first brought to the grand jury, who endorsed all the indictments against her.

Bishop was described as not living a Puritan lifestyle, for she wore black clothing and odd costumes, which was against the Puritan code.

When she was examined before her trial, Bishop was asked about her coat, which had been awkwardly "cut or torn in two ways". This, along with her "immoral" lifestyle, affirmed to the jury that Bishop was a witch.

She went to trial the same day and was convicted. On June 3, the grand jury endorsed indictments against Rebecca Nurse and John Willard, but they did not go to trial immediately, for reasons which are unclear.

Bishop was executed by hanging on June 10, Immediately following this execution, the court adjourned for 20 days until June 30 while it sought advice from New England's most influential ministers "upon the state of things as they then stood.

Hutchinson sums the letter, "The two first and the last sections of this advice took away the force of all the others, and the prosecutions went on with more vigor than before.

Major Nathaniel Saltonstall , Esq. According to Upham, Saltonstall deserves the credit for "being the only public man of his day who had the sense or courage to condemn the proceedings, at the start.

Suspect Roger Toothaker died in prison on June 16, All five women were executed by hanging on July 19, In mid-July, the constable in Andover invited the afflicted girls from Salem Village to visit with his wife to try to determine who was causing her afflictions.

Ann Foster, her daughter Mary Lacey Sr. Elizabeth Proctor was given a temporary stay of execution because she was pregnant.

Burroughs was carried in a Cart with others, through the streets of Salem, to Execution. When he was upon the Ladder, he made a speech for the clearing of his Innocency, with such Solemn and Serious Expressions as were to the Admiration of all present; his Prayer which he concluded by repeating the Lord's Prayer [as witches were not supposed to be able to recite] was so well worded, and uttered with such composedness as such fervency of spirit, as was very Affecting, and drew Tears from many, so that if seemed to some that the spectators would hinder the execution.

The accusers said the black Man [Devil] stood and dictated to him. As soon as he was turned off [hanged], Mr.

Cotton Mather, being mounted upon a Horse, addressed himself to the People, partly to declare that he [Mr.

Burroughs] was no ordained Minister, partly to possess the People of his guilt, saying that the devil often had been transformed into the Angel of Light.

And this did somewhat appease the People, and the Executions went on; when he [Mr. Burroughs] was cut down, he was dragged by a Halter to a Hole, or Grave, between the Rocks, about two feet deep; his Shirt and Breeches being pulled off, and an old pair of Trousers of one Executed put on his lower parts: he was so put in, together with Willard and Carrier, that one of his Hands, and his Chin, and a Foot of one of them, was left uncovered.

In September, grand juries indicted 18 more people. The grand jury failed to indict William Proctor, who was re-arrested on new charges.

On September 19, , Giles Corey refused to plead at arraignment, and was killed by peine forte et dure , a form of torture in which the subject is pressed beneath an increasingly heavy load of stones, in an attempt to make him enter a plea.

Four pleaded guilty and 11 others were tried and found guilty. On September 20, Cotton Mather wrote to Stephen Sewall: "That I may be the more capable to assist in lifting up a standard against the infernal enemy", requesting "a narrative of the evidence given in at the trials of half a dozen, or if you please, a dozen, of the principal witches that have been condemned.

Noyes turning him to the Bodies, said, what a sad thing it is to see Eight Firebrands of Hell hanging there. Dorcas Hoar was given a temporary reprieve, with the support of several ministers, to make a confession of being a witch.

Mary Bradbury aged 77 managed to escape with the help of family and friends. Abigail Faulkner, Sr. Mather quickly completed his account of the trials, Wonders of the Invisible World [57] and it was given to Phips when he returned from the fighting in Maine in early October.

Burr says both Phips' letter and Mather's manuscript "must have gone to London by the same ship" in mid-October.

I hereby declare that as soon as I came from fighting After Phips' order, there were no more executions. All were found not guilty.

Grand juries were held for many of those remaining in jail. Charges were dismissed against many, but 16 more people were indicted and tried, three of whom were found guilty: Elizabeth Johnson Jr.

When Stoughton wrote the warrants for the execution of these three and others remaining from the previous court, Governor Phips issued pardons, sparing their lives.

All were found not guilty but were not released until they paid their jail fees. Lydia Dustin died in jail on March 10, John Alden by proclamation.

It heard charges against a servant girl, Mary Watkins, for falsely accusing her mistress of witchcraft. They dismissed charges against all but five people.

After someone concluded that a loss, illness, or death had been caused by witchcraft, the accuser entered a complaint against the alleged witch with the local magistrates.

If the magistrates at this local level were satisfied that the complaint was well-founded, the prisoner was handed over to be dealt with by a superior court.

In , the magistrates opted to wait for the arrival of the new charter and governor, who would establish a Court of Oyer and Terminer to handle these cases.

The next step, at the superior court level, was to summon witnesses before a grand jury. A person could be indicted on charges of afflicting with witchcraft, [65] or for making an unlawful covenant with the Devil.

Several others, including Elizabeth Bassett Proctor and Abigail Faulkner, were convicted but given temporary reprieves because they were pregnant.

Five other women were convicted in , but the death sentence was never carried out: Mary Bradbury in absentia , Ann Foster who later died in prison , Mary Lacey Sr.

Foster's daughter , Dorcas Hoar and Abigail Hobbs. Giles Corey , an year-old farmer from the southeast end of Salem called Salem Farms , refused to enter a plea when he came to trial in September.

The judges applied an archaic form of punishment called peine forte et dure, in which stones were piled on his chest until he could no longer breathe.

After two days of peine fort et dure, Corey died without entering a plea. As convicted witches, Rebecca Nurse and Martha Corey had been excommunicated from their churches and denied proper burials.

As soon as the bodies of the accused were cut down from the trees, they were thrown into a shallow grave, and the crowd dispersed.

Oral history claims that the families of the dead reclaimed their bodies after dark and buried them in unmarked graves on family property.

The record books of the time do not note the deaths of any of those executed. Much, but not all, of the evidence used against the accused, was spectral evidence , or the testimony of the afflicted who claimed to see the apparition or the shape of the person who was allegedly afflicting them.

Opponents claimed that the Devil was able to use anyone's shape to afflict people, but the Court contended that the Devil could not use a person's shape without that person's permission; therefore, when the afflicted claimed to see the apparition of a specific person, that was accepted as evidence that the accused had been complicit with the Devil.

Cotton Mather's The Wonders of the Invisible World was written with the purpose to show how careful the court was in managing the trials.

Unfortunately the work did not get released until after the trials had already ended. Increase Mather and other ministers sent a letter to the Court, "The Return of Several Ministers Consulted", urging the magistrates not to convict on spectral evidence alone.

A copy of this letter was printed in Increase Mather 's Cases of Conscience , published in The publication A Tryal of Witches , related to the Bury St Edmunds witch trial , was used by the magistrates at Salem when looking for a precedent in allowing spectral evidence.

Since the jurist Sir Matthew Hale had permitted this evidence, supported by the eminent philosopher, physician and author Thomas Browne , to be used in the Bury St Edmunds witch trial and the accusations against two Lowestoft women, the colonial magistrates also accepted its validity and their trials proceeded.

According to an account attributed to Deodat Lawson "collected by Deodat Lawson" this happened around March 8, over a week after the first complaints had gone out and three women were arrested.

Lawson's account describes this cake "a means to discover witchcraft" and provides other details such as that it was made from rye meal and urine from the afflicted girls and was fed to a dog.

In the Church Records, Parris describes speaking with Sibley privately on March 25, , about her "grand error" and accepted her "sorrowful confession.

The first complaints were February 29 and the first arrests were March 1. Traditionally, the allegedly afflicted girls are said to have been entertained by Parris' slave, Tituba.

Upham in the 19th century, typically relate that a circle of the girls, with Tituba's help, tried their hands at fortune telling. They used the white of an egg and a mirror to create a primitive crystal ball to divine the professions of their future spouses and scared one another when one supposedly saw the shape of a coffin instead.

The story is drawn from John Hale 's book about the trials, [85] but in his account, only one of the girls, not a group of them, had confessed to him afterward that she had once tried this.

Hale did not mention Tituba as having any part of it, nor did he identify when the incident took place. But the record of Tituba's pre-trial examination holds her giving an energetic confession, speaking before the court of "creatures who inhabit the invisible world," and "the dark rituals which bind them together in service of Satan", implicating both Good and Osborne while asserting that "many other people in the colony were engaged in the devil's conspiracy against the Bay.

Tituba's race has often been described in later accounts as of Carib-Indian or African descent, but contemporary sources describe her only as an "Indian".

Research by Elaine Breslaw has suggested that Tituba may have been captured in what is now Venezuela and brought to Barbados , and so may have been an Arawak Indian.

Thomas Hutchinson writing his history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 18th century, describe her as a "Spanish Indian.

The most infamous application of the belief in effluvia was the touch test used in Andover during preliminary examinations in September Parris had explicitly warned his congregation against such examinations.

If the accused witch touched the victim while the victim was having a fit, and the fit stopped, observers believed that meant the accused was the person who had afflicted the victim.

As several of those accused later recounted,. Some led us and laid our hands upon them, and then they said they were well and that we were guilty of afflicting them; whereupon we were all seized, as prisoners, by a warrant from the justice of the peace and forthwith carried to Salem.

The Rev. John Hale explained how this supposedly worked: "the Witch by the cast of her eye sends forth a Malefick Venome into the Bewitched to cast him into a fit, and therefore the touch of the hand doth by sympathy cause that venome to return into the Body of the Witch again".

Other evidence included the confessions of the accused; testimony by a confessed witch who identified others as witches; the discovery of poppits poppets , books of palmistry and horoscopes, or pots of ointments in the possession or home of the accused; and observation of what were called witch's teats on the body of the accused.

A witch's teat was said to be a mole or blemish somewhere on the body that was insensitive to touch; discovery of such insensitive areas was considered de facto evidence of witchcraft.

Puritan ministers throughout the Massachusetts Bay Colony were exceedingly interested in the trial. Several traveled to Salem in order to gather information about the trial.

After witnessing the trials first-hand and gathering accounts, these ministers presented various opinions about the trial starting in This text had a tortured path to publication.

Initially conceived as a promotion of the trials and a triumphant celebration of Mather's leadership, Mather had to rewrite the text and disclaim personal involvement as suspicion about spectral evidence started to build.

The book included accounts of five trials, with much of the material copied directly from the court records, which were supplied to Mather by Stephen Sewall, a clerk in the court.

This book was intended to judiciously acknowledge the growing doubts about spectral evidence, while still maintaining the accuracy of Cotton's rewritten, whitewashed text.

Like his son, Increase minimized his personal involvement, although he included the full text of his August petition to the Salem court in support of spectral evidence.

Samuel Willard , minister of the Third Church in Boston [97] was a onetime strong supporter of the trials and of spectral evidence but became increasingly concerned as the Mathers crushed dissent.

In it, two characters, S Salem and B Boston , discuss the way the proceedings were being conducted, with "B" urging caution about the use of testimony from the afflicted and the confessors, stating, "whatever comes from them is to be suspected; and it is dangerous using or crediting them too far".

Although the last trial was held in May , public response to the events continued. In the decades following the trials, survivors and family members and their supporters sought to establish the innocence of the individuals who were convicted and to gain compensation.

In the following centuries, the descendants of those unjustly accused and condemned have sought to honor their memories. Events in Salem and Danvers in were used to commemorate the trials.

In November , years after the celebration of the th anniversary of the trials, the Massachusetts legislature passed an act exonerating all who had been convicted and naming each of the innocent.

The first indication that public calls for justice were not over occurred in when Thomas Maule , a noted Quaker, publicly criticized the handling of the trials by the Puritan leaders in Chapter 29 of his book Truth Held Forth and Maintained , expanding on Increase Mather by stating, "it were better that one hundred Witches should live, than that one person be put to death for a witch, which is not a Witch".

On December 17, , the General Court ruled that there would be a fast day on January 14, , "referring to the late Tragedy, raised among us by Satan and his Instruments.

From —97, Robert Calef , a "weaver" and a cloth merchant in Boston, collected correspondence, court records and petitions, and other accounts of the trials, and placed them, for contrast, alongside portions of Cotton Mather's Wonders of the Invisible World , under the title More Wonders of the Invisible World , [55].

Calef could not get it published in Boston and he had to take it to London, where it was published in Scholars of the trials—Hutchinson, Upham, Burr, and even Poole—have relied on Calef's compilation of documents.

John Hale, a minister in Beverly who was present at many of the proceedings, had completed his book, A Modest Enquiry into the Nature of Witchcraft in , which was not published until , after his death, and perhaps in response to Calef's book.

Expressing regret over the actions taken, Hale admitted, "Such was the darkness of that day, the tortures and lamentations of the afflicted, and the power of former presidents, that we walked in the clouds, and could not see our way.

Various petitions were filed between and with the Massachusetts government, demanding that the convictions be formally reversed.

Those tried and found guilty were considered dead in the eyes of the law, and with convictions still on the books, those not executed were vulnerable to further accusations.

The General Court initially reversed the attainder only for those who had filed petitions, [] only three people who had been convicted but not executed: Abigail Faulkner Sr.

In May , twenty-two people who had been convicted of witchcraft, or whose relatives had been convicted of witchcraft, presented the government with a petition in which they demanded both a reversal of attainder and compensation for financial losses.

Repentance was evident within the Salem Village church. Joseph Green and the members of the church voted on February 14, , after nearly two months of consideration, to reverse the excommunication of Martha Corey.

She claimed that she had not acted out of malice, but had been deluded by Satan into denouncing innocent people, mentioning Rebecca Nurse , in particular, [] and was accepted for full membership.

On October 17, , the General Court passed a bill reversing the judgment against the twenty-two people listed in the petition there were seven additional people who had been convicted but had not signed the petition, but there was no reversal of attainder for them.

Two months later, on December 17, , Governor Joseph Dudley authorized monetary compensation to the twenty-two people in the petition. Rebecca Nurse's descendants erected an obelisk-shaped granite memorial in her memory in on the grounds of the Nurse Homestead in Danvers, with an inscription from John Greenleaf Whittier.

In , an additional monument was erected in honor of forty neighbors who signed a petition in support of Nurse. Not all the condemned had been exonerated in the early 18th century.

In , descendants of the six people who had been wrongly convicted and executed but who had not been included in the bill for a reversal of attainder in , or added to it in , demanded that the General Court formally clear the names of their ancestral family members.

An act was passed pronouncing the innocence of those accused, although it listed only Ann Pudeator by name. The th anniversary of the trials was marked in in Salem and Danvers by a variety of events.

A memorial park was dedicated in Salem which included stone slab benches inserted in the stone wall of the park for each of those executed in In , The Danvers Tercentennial Committee also persuaded the Massachusetts House of Representatives to issue a resolution honoring those who had died.

After extensive efforts by Paula Keene, a Salem schoolteacher, state representatives J. Michael Ruane and Paul Tirone , along with others, issued a bill whereby the names of all those not previously listed were to be added to this resolution.

When it was finally signed on October 31, , by Governor Jane Swift , more than years later, all were finally proclaimed innocent. In January , the University of Virginia announced its project team had determined the execution site on Gallows Hill in Salem, where nineteen "witches" had been hanged in public.

The city owns the property and dedicated the Proctor's Ledge M emorial to the victims there in A documentary, Gallows Hill — Nineteen, is in production about these events.

The story of the witchcraft accusations, trials and executions has captured the imagination of writers and artists in the centuries since the event took place.

Their earliest impactful use as the basis for an item of popular fiction is the novel Rachel Dyer by John Neal. As the trials took place at the intersection between a gradually disappearing medieval past and an emerging enlightenment, and dealt with torture and confession, some interpretations draw attention to the boundaries between the medieval and the post-medieval as cultural constructions.

Most recently, the events of the Salem witch trials were interpreted in the exploitation-teen comedy film Assassination Nation, which changed the setting to the present United States and added thick social commentary in order to underline the absurdity of the actual events.

The cause of the symptoms of those who claimed affliction continues to be a subject of interest. Various medical and psychological explanations for the observed symptoms have been explored by researchers, including psychological hysteria in response to Indian attacks, convulsive ergotism caused by eating rye bread made from grain infected by the fungus Claviceps purpurea a natural substance from which LSD is derived , [] an epidemic of bird-borne encephalitis lethargica , and sleep paralysis to explain the nocturnal attacks alleged by some of the accusers.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the minor league baseball team, see Salem Witches baseball. For the lawsuit, see Salem witchcraft trial For the film, see Salem Witch Trials film.

Series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts. Crucial themes. Troubles at Frankfurt. Notable individuals.

Continuing movements. Congregational churches U. Further information: Protests against early modern witch trials. See also: History of the Puritans in North America.

Main article: Timeline of the Salem witch trials. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

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According to historian George Lincoln Burr , "the Salem witchcraft was the rock on which the theocracy shattered. At the th anniversary events in to commemorate the victims of the trials, a park was dedicated in Salem and a memorial in Danvers.

In November , an act passed by the Massachusetts legislature absolved five people, [5] while another one, passed in , had previously absolved six other victims.

The city dedicated the Proctor's Ledge Memorial to the victims there in While witch trials had begun to fade out across much of Europe by the midth century, they continued on the fringes of Europe and in the American Colonies.

In , in Against Modern Sadducism , [11] Joseph Glanvill claimed that he could prove the existence of witches and ghosts of the supernatural realm.

Glanvill wrote about the "denial of the bodily resurrection, and the [supernatural] spirits. In his treatise, Glanvill claimed that ingenious men should believe in witches and apparitions; if they doubted the reality of spirits, they not only denied demons but also the almighty God.

Glanvill wanted to prove that the supernatural could not be denied; those who did deny apparitions were considered heretics , for it also disproved their beliefs in angels.

The trials were started after people had been accused of witchcraft, primarily by teenage girls such as Elizabeth Hubbard , 17, as well as some who were younger.

The earliest recorded witchcraft execution was that of Alse Young in in Hartford, Connecticut. Historian Clarence F. Jewett included a list of other people executed in New England in his book.

New England had been settled by religious dissenters seeking to build a Bible-based society according to their own chosen discipline.

Simon Bradstreet and Thomas Danforth , the colony's last leaders under the old charter, resumed their posts as governor and deputy governor, but lacked constitutional authority to rule because the old charter had been vacated.

A new charter for the enlarged Province of Massachusetts Bay was given final approval in England on October 16, Increase Mather had been working on obtaining the charter for four years, with William Phips often joining him in London and helping him gain entry to Whitehall.

Increase Mather brought out a London edition of his son's book in Increase Mather claimed to have picked all the men to be included in the new government.

News of Mather's charter and the appointment of Phips as the new governor had reached Boston by late January, [20] and a copy of the new charter reached Boston on February 8, Salem Village present-day Danvers, Massachusetts was known for its fractious population, who had many internal disputes, and for disputes between the village and Salem Town present-day Salem.

Arguments about property lines, grazing rights, and church privileges were rife, and neighbors considered the population as "quarrelsome.

The first two ministers, James Bayley —79 and George Burroughs —83 , stayed only a few years each, departing after the congregation failed to pay their full rate.

Burroughs was subsequently arrested at the height of the witchcraft hysteria and was hanged as a witch in August Despite the ministers' rights being upheld by the General Court and the parish being admonished, each of the two ministers still chose to leave.

The third minister, Deodat Lawson —88 , stayed for a short time, leaving after the church in Salem refused to ordain him—and therefore not over issues with the congregation.

The parish disagreed about Salem Village's choice of Samuel Parris as its first ordained minister.

On October 10, , however, they raised his benefits, voting to grant him the deed to the parsonage and two acres 0.

Though the prior ministers' fates and the level of contention in Salem Village were valid reasons for caution in accepting the position, Rev. Parris increased the village's divisions by delaying his acceptance.

He did not seem able to settle his new parishioners' disputes: by deliberately seeking out "iniquitous behavior" in his congregation and making church members in good standing suffer public penance for small infractions, he contributed significantly to the tension within the village.

Its bickering increased unabated. Historian Marion Starkey suggests that, in this atmosphere, serious conflict may have been inevitable.

Prior to the constitutional turmoil of the s, the Massachusetts government had been dominated by conservative Puritan secular leaders.

While Puritans and the Church of England both shared a common influence in Calvinism , Puritans had opposed many of the traditions of the Church of England , including use of the Book of Common Prayer , the use of clergy vestments during services, the use of sign of the cross at baptism , and kneeling to receive communion , all of which they believed constituted popery.

King Charles I was hostile to this viewpoint, and Anglican church officials tried to repress these dissenting views during the s and s.

Some Puritans and other religious minorities had sought refuge in the Netherlands but ultimately many made a major migration to colonial North America to establish their own society.

These immigrants, who were mostly constituted of families, established several of the earliest colonies in New England, of which the Massachusetts Bay Colony was the largest and most economically important.

They intended to build a society based on their religious beliefs. Colonial leaders were elected by the freemen of the colony, those individuals who had had their religious experiences formally examined and had been admitted to one of the colony's Puritan congregations.

The colonial leadership were prominent members of their congregations and regularly consulted with the local ministers on issues facing the colony.

In the early s, England erupted in civil war. The Puritan-dominated Parliamentarians emerged victorious, and the Crown was supplanted by the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell in Its failure led to restoration of the old order under Charles II.

Emigration to New England slowed significantly in these years. In Massachusetts, a successful merchant class began to develop that was less religiously motivated than the colony's early settlers.

Indeed, Puritans held the belief that men and women were equal in the eyes of God, but not in the eyes of the Devil.

Women's souls were seen as unprotected in their weak and vulnerable bodies. Several factors may explain why women were more likely to admit guilt of witchcraft than men.

Historian Elizabeth Reis asserts that some likely believed they had truly given in to the Devil, and others might have believed they had done so temporarily.

However, because those who confessed were reintegrated into society, some women might have confessed in order to spare their own lives.

Quarrels with neighbors often incited witchcraft allegations. One example of this is Abigail Faulkner, who was accused in Faulkner admitted she was "angry at what folk said," and the Devil may have temporarily overtaken her, causing harm to her neighbors.

Cotton Mather , a minister of Boston's North Church was a prolific publisher of pamphlets, including some that expressed his belief in witchcraft.

In his book Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcrafts and Possessions , Mather describes his "oracular observations" and how "stupendous witchcraft" had affected the children of Boston mason John Goodwin.

Mather illustrates how the Goodwins' eldest child had been tempted by the devil and had stolen linen from the washerwoman Goody Glover. After the event, four out of six Goodwin children began to have strange fits, or what some people referred to as "the disease of astonishment.

Symptoms included neck and back pains, tongues being drawn from their throats, and loud random outcries; other symptoms included having no control over their bodies such as becoming limber, flapping their arms like birds, or trying to harm others as well as themselves.

These symptoms would fuel the craze of In Salem Village in February , Betty Parris age nine and her cousin Abigail Williams age 11 , the daughter and the niece, respectively, of Reverend Samuel Parris, began to have fits described as "beyond the power of epileptic fits or natural disease to effect" by John Hale , the minister of the nearby town of Beverly.

The girls complained of being pinched and pricked with pins. A doctor, historically assumed to be William Griggs , [14] could find no physical evidence of any ailment.

Other young women in the village began to exhibit similar behaviors. When Lawson preached as a guest in the Salem Village meetinghouse, he was interrupted several times by the outbursts of the afflicted.

Some historians believe that the accusation by Ann Putnam, Jr. At the time, a vicious rivalry was underway between the Putnam and Porter families, one which deeply polarized the people of Salem.

Citizens would often have heated debates, which escalated into full-fledged fighting, based solely on their opinion of the feud. Good was a destitute woman accused of witchcraft because of her reputation.

At her trial, she was accused of rejecting Puritan ideals of self-control and discipline when she chose to torment and "scorn [children] instead of leading them towards the path of salvation".

Sarah Osborne rarely attended church meetings. She was accused of witchcraft because the Puritans believed that Osborne had her own self-interests in mind following her remarriage to an indentured servant.

The citizens of the town disapproved of her trying to control her son's inheritance from her previous marriage. Tituba, an enslaved South American Indian woman from the West Indies , likely became a target because of her ethnic differences from most of the other villagers.

She was accused of attracting girls like Abigail Williams and Betty Parris with stories of enchantment from Malleus Maleficarum.

These tales about sexual encounters with demons, swaying the minds of men, and fortune-telling were said to stimulate the imaginations of girls and made Tituba an obvious target of accusations.

Each of these women was a kind of outcast and exhibited many of the character traits typical of the "usual suspects" for witchcraft accusations; they were left to defend themselves.

Brought before the local magistrates on the complaint of witchcraft, they were interrogated for several days, starting on March 1, , then sent to jail.

Martha Corey had expressed skepticism about the credibility of the girls' accusations and thus drawn attention. If such upstanding people could be witches, the townspeople thought, then anybody could be a witch, and church membership was no protection from accusation.

Dorothy Good, the daughter of Sarah Good , was only four years old but was not exempted from questioning by the magistrates; her answers were construed as a confession that implicated her mother.

In Ipswich, Rachel Clinton was arrested for witchcraft at the end of March on independent charges unrelated to the afflictions of the girls in Salem Village.

The men were both local magistrates and also members of the Governor's Council. During the proceedings, objections by Elizabeth's husband, John Proctor , resulted in his arrest that day.

Abigail Hobbs, Mary Warren, and Deliverance Hobbs all confessed and began naming additional people as accomplices. Nehemiah Abbott, Jr. Mary Eastey was released for a few days after her initial arrest because the accusers failed to confirm that it was she who had afflicted them; she was arrested again when the accusers reconsidered.

In May, accusations continued to pour in, but some of the suspects began to evade apprehension. Until this point, all the proceedings were investigative, but on May 27, , William Phips ordered the establishment of a Special Court of Oyer and Terminer for Suffolk, Essex and Middlesex counties to prosecute the cases of those in jail.

Warrants were issued for more people. Sarah Osborne, one of the first three persons accused, died in jail on May 10, When the Court of Oyer and Terminer convened at the end of May, the total number of people in custody was Cotton Mather wrote to one of the judges, John Richards , a member of his congregation, on May 31, , [50] expressing his support of the prosecutions, but cautioning him,.

It is very certain that the Devils have sometimes represented the Shapes of persons not only innocent, but also very virtuous.

Though I believe that the just God then ordinarily provides a way for the speedy vindication of the persons thus abused. Bridget Bishop's case was the first brought to the grand jury, who endorsed all the indictments against her.

Bishop was described as not living a Puritan lifestyle, for she wore black clothing and odd costumes, which was against the Puritan code.

When she was examined before her trial, Bishop was asked about her coat, which had been awkwardly "cut or torn in two ways".

This, along with her "immoral" lifestyle, affirmed to the jury that Bishop was a witch. She went to trial the same day and was convicted.

On June 3, the grand jury endorsed indictments against Rebecca Nurse and John Willard, but they did not go to trial immediately, for reasons which are unclear.

Bishop was executed by hanging on June 10, Immediately following this execution, the court adjourned for 20 days until June 30 while it sought advice from New England's most influential ministers "upon the state of things as they then stood.

Hutchinson sums the letter, "The two first and the last sections of this advice took away the force of all the others, and the prosecutions went on with more vigor than before.

Major Nathaniel Saltonstall , Esq. According to Upham, Saltonstall deserves the credit for "being the only public man of his day who had the sense or courage to condemn the proceedings, at the start.

Suspect Roger Toothaker died in prison on June 16, All five women were executed by hanging on July 19, In mid-July, the constable in Andover invited the afflicted girls from Salem Village to visit with his wife to try to determine who was causing her afflictions.

Ann Foster, her daughter Mary Lacey Sr. Elizabeth Proctor was given a temporary stay of execution because she was pregnant. Burroughs was carried in a Cart with others, through the streets of Salem, to Execution.

When he was upon the Ladder, he made a speech for the clearing of his Innocency, with such Solemn and Serious Expressions as were to the Admiration of all present; his Prayer which he concluded by repeating the Lord's Prayer [as witches were not supposed to be able to recite] was so well worded, and uttered with such composedness as such fervency of spirit, as was very Affecting, and drew Tears from many, so that if seemed to some that the spectators would hinder the execution.

The accusers said the black Man [Devil] stood and dictated to him. As soon as he was turned off [hanged], Mr. Cotton Mather, being mounted upon a Horse, addressed himself to the People, partly to declare that he [Mr.

Burroughs] was no ordained Minister, partly to possess the People of his guilt, saying that the devil often had been transformed into the Angel of Light.

And this did somewhat appease the People, and the Executions went on; when he [Mr. Burroughs] was cut down, he was dragged by a Halter to a Hole, or Grave, between the Rocks, about two feet deep; his Shirt and Breeches being pulled off, and an old pair of Trousers of one Executed put on his lower parts: he was so put in, together with Willard and Carrier, that one of his Hands, and his Chin, and a Foot of one of them, was left uncovered.

In September, grand juries indicted 18 more people. The grand jury failed to indict William Proctor, who was re-arrested on new charges.

On September 19, , Giles Corey refused to plead at arraignment, and was killed by peine forte et dure , a form of torture in which the subject is pressed beneath an increasingly heavy load of stones, in an attempt to make him enter a plea.

Four pleaded guilty and 11 others were tried and found guilty. On September 20, Cotton Mather wrote to Stephen Sewall: "That I may be the more capable to assist in lifting up a standard against the infernal enemy", requesting "a narrative of the evidence given in at the trials of half a dozen, or if you please, a dozen, of the principal witches that have been condemned.

Noyes turning him to the Bodies, said, what a sad thing it is to see Eight Firebrands of Hell hanging there. Dorcas Hoar was given a temporary reprieve, with the support of several ministers, to make a confession of being a witch.

Mary Bradbury aged 77 managed to escape with the help of family and friends. Abigail Faulkner, Sr. Mather quickly completed his account of the trials, Wonders of the Invisible World [57] and it was given to Phips when he returned from the fighting in Maine in early October.

Burr says both Phips' letter and Mather's manuscript "must have gone to London by the same ship" in mid-October. I hereby declare that as soon as I came from fighting After Phips' order, there were no more executions.

All were found not guilty. Grand juries were held for many of those remaining in jail. Charges were dismissed against many, but 16 more people were indicted and tried, three of whom were found guilty: Elizabeth Johnson Jr.

When Stoughton wrote the warrants for the execution of these three and others remaining from the previous court, Governor Phips issued pardons, sparing their lives.

All were found not guilty but were not released until they paid their jail fees. Lydia Dustin died in jail on March 10, John Alden by proclamation.

It heard charges against a servant girl, Mary Watkins, for falsely accusing her mistress of witchcraft. They dismissed charges against all but five people.

After someone concluded that a loss, illness, or death had been caused by witchcraft, the accuser entered a complaint against the alleged witch with the local magistrates.

If the magistrates at this local level were satisfied that the complaint was well-founded, the prisoner was handed over to be dealt with by a superior court.

In , the magistrates opted to wait for the arrival of the new charter and governor, who would establish a Court of Oyer and Terminer to handle these cases.

The next step, at the superior court level, was to summon witnesses before a grand jury. A person could be indicted on charges of afflicting with witchcraft, [65] or for making an unlawful covenant with the Devil.

Several others, including Elizabeth Bassett Proctor and Abigail Faulkner, were convicted but given temporary reprieves because they were pregnant. Five other women were convicted in , but the death sentence was never carried out: Mary Bradbury in absentia , Ann Foster who later died in prison , Mary Lacey Sr.

Foster's daughter , Dorcas Hoar and Abigail Hobbs. Giles Corey , an year-old farmer from the southeast end of Salem called Salem Farms , refused to enter a plea when he came to trial in September.

The judges applied an archaic form of punishment called peine forte et dure, in which stones were piled on his chest until he could no longer breathe.

After two days of peine fort et dure, Corey died without entering a plea. As convicted witches, Rebecca Nurse and Martha Corey had been excommunicated from their churches and denied proper burials.

As soon as the bodies of the accused were cut down from the trees, they were thrown into a shallow grave, and the crowd dispersed. Oral history claims that the families of the dead reclaimed their bodies after dark and buried them in unmarked graves on family property.

The record books of the time do not note the deaths of any of those executed. Much, but not all, of the evidence used against the accused, was spectral evidence , or the testimony of the afflicted who claimed to see the apparition or the shape of the person who was allegedly afflicting them.

Opponents claimed that the Devil was able to use anyone's shape to afflict people, but the Court contended that the Devil could not use a person's shape without that person's permission; therefore, when the afflicted claimed to see the apparition of a specific person, that was accepted as evidence that the accused had been complicit with the Devil.

Cotton Mather's The Wonders of the Invisible World was written with the purpose to show how careful the court was in managing the trials.

Unfortunately the work did not get released until after the trials had already ended. Increase Mather and other ministers sent a letter to the Court, "The Return of Several Ministers Consulted", urging the magistrates not to convict on spectral evidence alone.

A copy of this letter was printed in Increase Mather 's Cases of Conscience , published in The publication A Tryal of Witches , related to the Bury St Edmunds witch trial , was used by the magistrates at Salem when looking for a precedent in allowing spectral evidence.

Since the jurist Sir Matthew Hale had permitted this evidence, supported by the eminent philosopher, physician and author Thomas Browne , to be used in the Bury St Edmunds witch trial and the accusations against two Lowestoft women, the colonial magistrates also accepted its validity and their trials proceeded.

According to an account attributed to Deodat Lawson "collected by Deodat Lawson" this happened around March 8, over a week after the first complaints had gone out and three women were arrested.

Lawson's account describes this cake "a means to discover witchcraft" and provides other details such as that it was made from rye meal and urine from the afflicted girls and was fed to a dog.

In the Church Records, Parris describes speaking with Sibley privately on March 25, , about her "grand error" and accepted her "sorrowful confession.

The first complaints were February 29 and the first arrests were March 1. Traditionally, the allegedly afflicted girls are said to have been entertained by Parris' slave, Tituba.

Upham in the 19th century, typically relate that a circle of the girls, with Tituba's help, tried their hands at fortune telling.

They used the white of an egg and a mirror to create a primitive crystal ball to divine the professions of their future spouses and scared one another when one supposedly saw the shape of a coffin instead.

The story is drawn from John Hale 's book about the trials, [85] but in his account, only one of the girls, not a group of them, had confessed to him afterward that she had once tried this.

Hale did not mention Tituba as having any part of it, nor did he identify when the incident took place.

But the record of Tituba's pre-trial examination holds her giving an energetic confession, speaking before the court of "creatures who inhabit the invisible world," and "the dark rituals which bind them together in service of Satan", implicating both Good and Osborne while asserting that "many other people in the colony were engaged in the devil's conspiracy against the Bay.

Tituba's race has often been described in later accounts as of Carib-Indian or African descent, but contemporary sources describe her only as an "Indian".

Research by Elaine Breslaw has suggested that Tituba may have been captured in what is now Venezuela and brought to Barbados , and so may have been an Arawak Indian.

Thomas Hutchinson writing his history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 18th century, describe her as a "Spanish Indian.

The most infamous application of the belief in effluvia was the touch test used in Andover during preliminary examinations in September Parris had explicitly warned his congregation against such examinations.

If the accused witch touched the victim while the victim was having a fit, and the fit stopped, observers believed that meant the accused was the person who had afflicted the victim.

As several of those accused later recounted,. Some led us and laid our hands upon them, and then they said they were well and that we were guilty of afflicting them; whereupon we were all seized, as prisoners, by a warrant from the justice of the peace and forthwith carried to Salem.

The Rev. John Hale explained how this supposedly worked: "the Witch by the cast of her eye sends forth a Malefick Venome into the Bewitched to cast him into a fit, and therefore the touch of the hand doth by sympathy cause that venome to return into the Body of the Witch again".

Other evidence included the confessions of the accused; testimony by a confessed witch who identified others as witches; the discovery of poppits poppets , books of palmistry and horoscopes, or pots of ointments in the possession or home of the accused; and observation of what were called witch's teats on the body of the accused.

A witch's teat was said to be a mole or blemish somewhere on the body that was insensitive to touch; discovery of such insensitive areas was considered de facto evidence of witchcraft.

Puritan ministers throughout the Massachusetts Bay Colony were exceedingly interested in the trial. Several traveled to Salem in order to gather information about the trial.

After witnessing the trials first-hand and gathering accounts, these ministers presented various opinions about the trial starting in This text had a tortured path to publication.

Initially conceived as a promotion of the trials and a triumphant celebration of Mather's leadership, Mather had to rewrite the text and disclaim personal involvement as suspicion about spectral evidence started to build.

The book included accounts of five trials, with much of the material copied directly from the court records, which were supplied to Mather by Stephen Sewall, a clerk in the court.

This book was intended to judiciously acknowledge the growing doubts about spectral evidence, while still maintaining the accuracy of Cotton's rewritten, whitewashed text.

Like his son, Increase minimized his personal involvement, although he included the full text of his August petition to the Salem court in support of spectral evidence.

Samuel Willard , minister of the Third Church in Boston [97] was a onetime strong supporter of the trials and of spectral evidence but became increasingly concerned as the Mathers crushed dissent.

In it, two characters, S Salem and B Boston , discuss the way the proceedings were being conducted, with "B" urging caution about the use of testimony from the afflicted and the confessors, stating, "whatever comes from them is to be suspected; and it is dangerous using or crediting them too far".

Although the last trial was held in May , public response to the events continued. In the decades following the trials, survivors and family members and their supporters sought to establish the innocence of the individuals who were convicted and to gain compensation.

In the following centuries, the descendants of those unjustly accused and condemned have sought to honor their memories. Events in Salem and Danvers in were used to commemorate the trials.

In November , years after the celebration of the th anniversary of the trials, the Massachusetts legislature passed an act exonerating all who had been convicted and naming each of the innocent.

The first indication that public calls for justice were not over occurred in when Thomas Maule , a noted Quaker, publicly criticized the handling of the trials by the Puritan leaders in Chapter 29 of his book Truth Held Forth and Maintained , expanding on Increase Mather by stating, "it were better that one hundred Witches should live, than that one person be put to death for a witch, which is not a Witch".

On December 17, , the General Court ruled that there would be a fast day on January 14, , "referring to the late Tragedy, raised among us by Satan and his Instruments.

From —97, Robert Calef , a "weaver" and a cloth merchant in Boston, collected correspondence, court records and petitions, and other accounts of the trials, and placed them, for contrast, alongside portions of Cotton Mather's Wonders of the Invisible World , under the title More Wonders of the Invisible World , [55].

Calef could not get it published in Boston and he had to take it to London, where it was published in Scholars of the trials—Hutchinson, Upham, Burr, and even Poole—have relied on Calef's compilation of documents.

John Hale, a minister in Beverly who was present at many of the proceedings, had completed his book, A Modest Enquiry into the Nature of Witchcraft in , which was not published until , after his death, and perhaps in response to Calef's book.

Expressing regret over the actions taken, Hale admitted, "Such was the darkness of that day, the tortures and lamentations of the afflicted, and the power of former presidents, that we walked in the clouds, and could not see our way.

Various petitions were filed between and with the Massachusetts government, demanding that the convictions be formally reversed.

Those tried and found guilty were considered dead in the eyes of the law, and with convictions still on the books, those not executed were vulnerable to further accusations.

The General Court initially reversed the attainder only for those who had filed petitions, [] only three people who had been convicted but not executed: Abigail Faulkner Sr.

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