mescidiaksa.eu - Kaufen Sie Rise of the Scythian günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer. Rise of the Scythian [dt./OV]. ()IMDb 6,21 Std. 44 MinX-Ray In einer Zeit, in der einzelne Zivilisationen ausgelÃ¶scht wurden, werden die stolzen. In einer Zeit, in der einzelne Zivilisationen ausgelöscht wurden, werden die stolzen Krieger der Skythen zu Nomaden und ziehen skrupellos mordend.
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Die Skythen sind ein Volk aus stolzen Kriegern, welche als Nomaden skrupellos mordend durch das Land ziehen. Als sie die Familie des Soldaten Lutobor entführen, versucht der Anführer der Skythen, seinen Krieger Weasel zu ermorden. Doch als Weasel. mescidiaksa.eu - Kaufen Sie Rise of the Scythian günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer. Rise of the Scythian [dt./OV]. ()IMDb 6,21 Std. 44 MinX-Ray In einer Zeit, in der einzelne Zivilisationen ausgelÃ¶scht wurden, werden die stolzen. Blutiger Blick in die Geschichte "Rise of the Scythian" ist wie "", nur roher. Von Thomas Badtke. mescidiaksa.eu Lutoboor, Soldat des Fürsten, der zum. Find Die letzten Krieger / Rise of the Scythian at mescidiaksa.eu Movies & TV, home of thousands of titles on DVD and Blu-ray. Aleksey Faddeev muss sich in Rise of the Scythian mit seinem Feind verbünden, um im Kampf gegen die berüchtigten Krieger der Skythen zu bestehen. Rise of the Scythian Kritik: 15 Rezensionen, Meinungen und die neuesten User-Kommentare zu Rise of the Scythian.
Find Die letzten Krieger / Rise of the Scythian at mescidiaksa.eu Movies & TV, home of thousands of titles on DVD and Blu-ray. Blutiger Blick in die Geschichte "Rise of the Scythian" ist wie "", nur roher. Von Thomas Badtke. mescidiaksa.eu Lutoboor, Soldat des Fürsten, der zum. In einer Zeit, in der einzelne Zivilisationen ausgelöscht wurden, werden die stolzen Krieger der Skythen zu Nomaden und ziehen skrupellos mordend.
Rise Of Scythian - Das könnte dich auch interessierenBrutal, hart, blutig, dramatisch. Ganz besonders begeistert bin ich aber von der Musik, denn die passt so hervorragend zum Film und ist nicht irgendein Kampforchester. Scythian archaeology can be divided into three stages: . Burials containing both males and females are quite common both in elite burials and in the burials of the common 100 Dinge Stream Kinox. The The Hornets languages Alec Secăreanu have formed a dialect continuum : "Scytho-Sarmatian" in the west and "Scytho-Khotanese" or Tv Ptogramm in the east. Part of a series on. The New Testament includes a single reference to Scythians in Colossians  in a letter ascribed to Paul"Scythian" is used as an example of people whom some label pejoratively, but who are, in Christ, acceptable to God:. The study suggested that the Scythians arose independently of culturally similar groups further east. It represents a fusion Bianca Comparato Scythian traditions with those of the Greek colonists and the Tauriwho inhabited the mountains of the Crimea.
However, the hero does not intend to resign himself to fate, and pursues the Scythians in an attempt to save his family. As a guide, he takes the captive Scythian Marten Kuznetsov and, despite the huge differences between them, they must work together to survive their journey.
The film was released on January 18, These are times when one civilization is replacing another. A new era is about to begin in Central Eurasia.
The Scythians, once proud warriors, are all but gone. Their few descendants have become ruthless mercenary assassins, the "Wolves of Ares.
He becomes involved in internecine conflicts and sets off on a perilous journey to save his family. His guide is a captive Scythian by the name of Marten.
Lutobor and Marten are enemies. They pray to different gods but must embark on this journey together. They brave the wild steppes, moving toward the last haven of the Scythians, to what seems to be their inevitable demise.
Filming took place in the Republic of Crimea in autumn They filmed near Kerch , as well as near Yevpatoriya and Yalta. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
These include several unusually rich burials such as Kul-Oba near Panticapaeum in the Crimea and the necropolis of Nymphaion. The sites probably represent Scythian aristocrats who had close ties, if not family ties, with the elite of Nymphaion and aristocrats, perhaps even royals, of the Bosporan Kingdom.
In total, more than 3, Scythian funerary sites from the 4th century BC have been discovered on the Pontic steppe. This number far exceeds the number of all funerary sites from previous centuries.
Apart from funerary sites, remains of Scythian cities from this period have been discovered. These include both continuations from the Early Scythian period and newly founded settlements.
The most important of these is the settlement of Kamenskoe on the Dniepr, which existed from the 5th century to the beginning of the 3rd century BC.
It was a fortified settlement occupying an area of 12 square km. The chief occupation of its inhabitants appears to have been metalworking, and the city was probably an important supplier of metalwork for the nomadic Scythians.
Part of the population was probably composed of agriculturalists. It is likely that Kamenskoe also served as a political center in Scythia.
A significant part of Kamenskoe was not built up, perhaps to set it aside for the Scythian king and his entourage during their seasonal visits to the city.
By the 4th century, it appears that some of the Scythians were adopting an agricultural way of life similar to the peoples of the forest steppes.
As a result, a number of fortified and non-fortified settlements spring up in the areas of the lower Dnieper. Part of the settled inhabitants of Olbia were also of Scythian origin.
Classical Scythian culture lasts until the late 4th century or early 3rd century BC. The last period in the Scythian archaeological culture is the Late Scythian culture, which existed in the Crimea and the Lower Dnieper from the 3rd century BC.
This area was at the time mostly settled by Scythians. Archaeologically the Late Scythian culture has little in common with its predecessors.
It represents a fusion of Scythian traditions with those of the Greek colonists and the Tauri , who inhabited the mountains of the Crimea.
The population of the Late Scythian culture was mainly settled, and were engaged in stockbreeding and agriculture.
They were also important traders, serving as intermediaries between the classical world and the barbarian world. It was a well-protected fortress constructed in accordance with Greek principles.
The most important site of the Late Crimean culture is Scythian Neaoplis, which was located in Crimea and served as the capital of the Late Scythian kingdom from the early 2nd century BC to the beginning of the 3rd century AD.
Scythian Neapolis was largely constructed in accordance with Greek principles. Its royal palace was destroyed by Diophantus , a general of the Pontic king Mithridates VI , at the end of the 2nd century BC, and was not rebuilt.
The city nevertheless continued to exist as a major urban center. It underwent significant change from the 1st century to the 2nd century AD, eventually being left with virtually no buildings except from its fortifications.
New funerary rites and material features also appear. It is probable that these changes represent the assimilation of the Scythians by the Sarmatians.
A certain continuity is, however, observable. From the end of the 2nd century to the middle of the 3rd century AD, Scythian Neapolis transforms into a non-fortified settlement containing only a few buildings.
They are often accompanied by a necropolis. Late Scythian sites are mostly found in areas around the foothills of the Crimean mountains and along the western coast of the Crimea.
Some of these settlements had earlier been Greek settlements, such as Kalos Limen and Kerkinitis. Many of these coastal settlements served as trading ports.
Like Neapolis and Ak-Kaya, these are characterized by a combination of Greek architectural principles and local ones.
A unique group of Late Scythian settlements were city-states located on the banks of the Lower Dnieper.
The material culture of these settlements was even more Hellenized than those on the Crimea, and they were probably closely connected to Olbia, if not dependent it.
Burials of the Late Scythian culture can be divided into two kurgans and necropolises, with necropolises becoming more and more common as time progresses.
The largest such necropolis has been found at Ust-Alma. Because of close similarities between the material culture of the Late Scythians and that of neighbouring Greek cities, many scholars have suggested that Late Scythian cites, particularly those of the Lower Dnieper, were populated at last partly by Greeks.
The Late Scythian culture ends in the 3rd century AD. Since the Scythians did not have a written language, their non-material culture can only be pieced together through writings by non-Scythian authors, parallels found among other Iranian peoples, and archaeological evidence.
Scythians lived in confederated tribes, a political form of voluntary association which regulated pastures and organised a common defence against encroaching neighbours for the pastoral tribes of mostly equestrian herdsmen.
While the productivity of domesticated animal-breeding greatly exceeded that of the settled agricultural societies, the pastoral economy also needed supplemental agricultural produce, and stable nomadic confederations developed either symbiotic or forced alliances with sedentary peoples—in exchange for animal produce and military protection.
Herodotus relates that three main tribes of the Scythians descended from three sons of Targitaus: Lipoxais, Arpoxais, and Colaxais.
They called themselves Scoloti, after one of their kings. The first scholar to compare the three strata of Scythian society to the Indian castes was Arthur Christensen.
The Scythians were a warlike people. When engaged at war, almost the entire adult population, including a large number of women, participated in battle.
Scythians were particularly known for their equestrian skills, and their early use of composite bows shot from horseback.
With great mobility, the Scythians could absorb the attacks of more cumbersome footsoldiers and cavalry, just retreating into the steppes. Such tactics wore down their enemies, making them easier to defeat.
The Scythians were notoriously aggressive warriors. Ruled by small numbers of closely allied elites, Scythians had a reputation for their archers , and many gained employment as mercenaries.
Scythian elites had kurgan tombs: high barrows heaped over chamber-tombs of larch wood, a deciduous conifer that may have had special significance as a tree of life-renewal, for it stands bare in winter.
The Ziwiye hoard , a treasure of gold and silver metalwork and ivory found near the town of Sakiz south of Lake Urmia and dated to between and BC, includes objects with Scythian " animal style " features.
One silver dish from this find bears some inscriptions, as yet undeciphered and so possibly representing a form of Scythian writing.
Scythians also had a reputation for the use of barbed and poisoned arrows of several types, for a nomadic life centred on horses—"fed from horse-blood" according to Herodotus—and for skill in guerrilla warfare.
Some Scythian-Sarmatian cultures may have given rise to Greek stories of Amazons. Graves of armed females have been found in southern Ukraine and Russia.
According to Herodotus, Scythian costume consisted of padded and quilted leather trousers tucked into boots, and open tunics. They rode without stirrups or saddles, using only saddle-cloths.
Herodotus reports that Scythians used cannabis , both to weave their clothing and to cleanse themselves in its smoke Hist. Men seemed to have worn a variety of soft headgear—either conical like the one described by Herodotus, or rounder, more like a Phrygian cap.
Costume has been regarded as one of the main identifying criteria for Scythians. Women wore a variety of different headdresses, some conical in shape others more like flattened cylinders, also adorned with metal golden plaques.
Scythian women wore long, loose robes, ornamented with metal plaques gold. Women wore shawls, often richly decorated with metal golden plaques.
Based on numerous archeological findings in Ukraine, southern Russia, and Kazakhstan, men and warrior women wore long sleeve tunics that were always belted, often with richly ornamented belts.
Materials used depended on the wealth, climate and necessity. Men and women warriors wore variations of long and shorter boots, wool-leather-felt gaiter-boots and moccasin-like shoes.
They were either of a laced or simple slip on type. Women wore also soft shoes with metal gold plaques. Men and women wore belts. Warrior belts were made of leather, often with gold or other metal adornments and had many attached leather thongs for fastening of the owner's gorytos, sword, whet stone, whip etc.
Belts were fastened with metal or horn belt-hooks , leather thongs and metal often golden or horn belt-plates. Scythian religion was a type of Pre-Zoroastrian Iranian religion and differed from the post- Zoroastrian Iranian thoughts.
The use of cannabis to induce trance and divination by soothsayers was a characteristic of the Scythian belief system.
Our most important literary source on Scythian religion is Herodotus. According to him the leading deity in the Scythian pantheon was Tabiti , whom he compared to the Greek god Hestia.
The Scythians are also said by Herodotus to have worshipped equivalents of Heracles and Ares , but he does not mention their Scythian names.
Most of the names of Scythian deities can be traced back to Iranian roots. Herodotus states that Thagimasadas was worshipped by the Royal Scythians only, while the remaining deities were worshipped by all.
He also states that "Ares", the god of war, was the only god to whom the Scythians dedicated statues, altars or temples.
Tumuli were erected to him in every Scythian district, and both animal sacrifices and human sacrifices were performed in honor of him.
At least one shrine to "Ares" has been discovered by archaeologists. The Scythians had professional priests, but it is not known if they constituted a hereditary class.
Among the priests there was a separate group, the Enarei , who worshipped the goddess Argimpasa and assumed feminine identities.
Scythian mythology gave much importance to myth of the "First Man", who was considered the ancestor of them and their kings. Similar myths are common among other Iranian peoples.
Considerable importance was given to the division of Scythian society into three hereditary classes, which consisted of warriors, priests and producers.
Kings were considered part of the warrior class. Royal power was considered holy and of solar and heavenly origin.
It is probable that the Scythians had a number of epic legends, which were possibly the source for Herodotus' writings on them.
In Scythian cosmology the world was divided into three parts, with the warriors, considered part of the upper world, the priests of the middle level, and the producers of the lower one.
The art of the Scythians and related peoples of the Scythian cultures is known as Scythian art. It is particularly characterized by its use of the animal style.
Scythian animal style appears in an already established form Eastern Europe in the 8th century BC along with the Early Scythian archaeological culture itself.
It bears little resemblance to the art of pre-Scythian cultures of the area. Some scholars suggest the art style developed under Near Eastern influence during the military campaigns of the 7th century BC, but the more common theory is that it developed on the eastern part of the Eurasian Steppe under Chinese influence.
Others have sought to reconcile the two theories, suggesting that the animal style of the west and eastern parts of the steppe developed independently of each other, under Near Eastern and Chinese influences, respectively.
Regardless, the animal style art of the Scythians differs considerable from that of peoples living further east. Scythian animal style works are typically divided into birds, ungulates and beasts of prey.
This probably reflects the tripatriate division of the Scythian cosmos, with birds belonging to the upper level, ungulates to the middle level and beasts of prey in the lower level.
Images of mythological creatures such a griffins are not uncommon in Scythian animal style, but these are probably the result of Near Eastern influences.
By the late 6th century, as Scythian activity in the Near East was reduced, depictions of mythological creatures largely disappears from Scythian art.
It, however, reappears again in the 4th century BC as a result of Greek influence. Anthropomorphic depictions in Early Scythian art is known only from kurgan stelae.
These depict warriors with almond-shaped eyes and mustaches, often including weapons and other military equipment. Since the 5th century BC, Scythian art changed considerably.
This was probably a result of Greek and Persian influence, and possibly also internal developments caused by an arrival of a new nomadic people from the east.
The changes are notable in the more realistic depictions of animals, who are now often depicted fighting each other rather than being depicted individually.
Kurgan stelae of the time also display traces of Greek influences, with warriors being depicted with rounder eyes and full beards.
The 4th century BC show additional Greek influence. While animal style was still in use, it appears that much Scythian art by this point was being made by Greek craftsmen on behalf of Scythians.
Such objects are frequently found in royal Scythian burials of the period. Depictions of human beings become more prevalent.
Many objects of Scythian art made by Greeks are probably illustrations of Scythian legends. Several objects are believed to have been of religious significance.
By the late 3rd century BC, original Scythian art disappears through ongoing Hellenization. The creation of anthropomorphic gravestones continued, however.
Works of Scythian art are held at many museums and has been featured at many exhibitions. The Scythians spoke a language belonging to the Scythian languages , most probably  a branch of the Eastern Iranian languages.
The Scythian languages may have formed a dialect continuum : "Scytho-Sarmatian" in the west and "Scytho-Khotanese" or Saka in the east. The western Sarmatian group of ancient Scythian survived as the medieval language of the Alans and eventually gave rise to the modern Ossetian language.
Physical and genetic analyses of ancient remains have concluded that Scythians possessed predominantly features of Europoids. Some mixed Mongoloid phenotypes were also present but more frequently in eastern Scythians, suggesting that Scythians as a whole were also descended partly from East Eurasian populations.
In artworks, the Scythians are portrayed exhibiting Caucasoid traits. In , a genetic study of various Scythian cultures, including the Scythians, was published in Nature Communications.
The study suggested that the Scythians arose independently of culturally similar groups further east. Though all groups studies shared a common origin in the Yamnaya culture , the presence of east Eurasian mitochondrial lineages was largely absent among Scythians, but present among other groups further east.
Modern populations most closely related to the Scythians were found to be populations living in proximity to the sites studied, suggesting genetic continuity.
Another genetic study, published in Scientific Reports , found that the Scythians shared common mithocondrial lineages with the earlier Srubnaya culture.
It also noted that the Scythians differed from materially similar groups further east by the absence of east Eurasian mitochondrial lineages.
The authors of the study suggested that the Srubnaya culture was the source of the Scythian cultures of at least the Pontic steppe.
In , a genetic study of the earlier Srubnaya culture, and later peoples of the Scythian cultures, including the Scythians, was published in Science Advances.
Members of the Srubnaya culture were found to be exclusively carriers of haplogroup R1a1a1 R1a-M , which showed a major expansion during the Bronze Age.
Six male Scythian samples from kurgans at Starosillya and Glinoe were successfully analyzed. These were found to be carriers of haplogroup R1b1a1a2 R1b-M The Scythians were found to be closely related to the Afanasievo culture and the Andronovo culture.
The authors of the study suggested that the Scythians were not directly descended from the Srubnaya culture, but that the Scythians and the Srubnaya shared a common origin through the earlier Yamnaya culture.
Significant genetic differences were found between the Scythians and materially similar groups further east, which underpinned the notion that although materially similar, the Scythians and groups further east should be seen as separate peoples belonging to a common cultural horizon, which perhaps had its source on the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe and the southern Urals.
In , a genetic study of remains from the Aldy-Bel culture of southern Siberia, which is materially similar to that of the Scythians, was published in Human Genetics.
The majority of Aldy-Bel samples were found to be carriers of haplogroup R1a , including two carriers of haplogroup R1a1a1b2 R1a-Z East Asian admixture was also detected.
The results indicated that the Scythians and the Aldy-Bel people were of completely different paternal origins, with almost no paternal gene flow between them.
In , a genetic study of various peoples belonging to the Scythian cultures, including the Scythians, was published in Current Biology.
The Scythians remains were mostly found to be carriers of haplogroup R1a and various subclades of it. The authors of the study suggested that migrations must have played a role in the emergence of the Scythians as the dominant power on the Pontic steppe.
In Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages , the name "Scythians" was used in Greco-Roman literature for various groups of nomadic " barbarians " living on the Pontic-Caspian steppe.
None of these peoples had any relation whatsoever with the actual Scythians. Byzantine sources also refer to the Rus' raiders who attacked Constantinople circa in contemporary accounts as " Tauroscythians ", because of their geographical origin, and despite their lack of any ethnic relation to Scythians.
Patriarch Photius may have first applied the term to them during the siege of Constantinople. Owing to their reputation as established by Greek historians, the Scythians long served as the epitome of savagery and barbarism.
The New Testament includes a single reference to Scythians in Colossians  in a letter ascribed to Paul , "Scythian" is used as an example of people whom some label pejoratively, but who are, in Christ, acceptable to God:.
Here there is no Greek or Jew. There is no difference between those who are circumcised and those who are not. There is no rude outsider, or even a Scythian.
There is no slave or free person. But Christ is everything. And he is in everything. Shakespeare , for instance, alluded to the legend that Scythians ate their children in his play King Lear :.
Or he that makes his generation messes To gorge his appetite, shall to my bosom Be as well neighbour'd, pitied, and relieved,.
As thou my sometime daughter. Characteristically, early modern English discourse on Ireland , such as that of William Camden and Edmund Spenser , frequently resorted to comparisons with Scythians in order to confirm that the indigenous population of Ireland descended from these ancient "bogeymen", and showed themselves as barbaric as their alleged ancestors.
Some legends of the Poles ,  the Picts , the Gaels , the Hungarians , among others, also include mention of Scythian origins.
Some writers claim that Scythians figured in the formation of the empire of the Medes and likewise of Caucasian Albania.
The Scythians also feature in some national origin-legends of the Celts. The Carolingian kings of the Franks traced Merovingian ancestry to the Germanic tribe of the Sicambri.
Gregory of Tours documents in his History of the Franks that when Clovis was baptised, he was referred to as a Sicamber with the words "Mitis depone colla, Sicamber, adora quod incendisti, incendi quod adorasti.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, foreigners regarded the Russians as descendants of Scythians. It became conventional to refer to Russians as Scythians in 18th-century poetry, and Alexander Blok drew on this tradition sarcastically in his last major poem, The Scythians In the 19th century, romantic revisionists in the West transformed the " barbarian " Scyths of literature into the wild and free, hardy and democratic ancestors of all blond Indo-Europeans.
Based on such accounts of Scythian founders of certain Germanic as well as Celtic tribes, British historiography in the British Empire period such as Sharon Turner in his History of the Anglo-Saxons , made them the ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons.
The idea was taken up in the British Israelism of John Wilson , who adopted and promoted the idea that the "European Race, in particular the Anglo-Saxons, were descended from certain Scythian tribes, and these Scythian tribes as many had previously stated from the Middle Ages onward were in turn descended from the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel.
Herodotus and other classical historians listed quite a number of tribes who lived near the Scythians, and presumably shared the same general milieu and nomadic steppe culture, often called "Scythian culture", even though scholars may have difficulties in determining their exact relationship to the "linguistic Scythians".
A partial list of these tribes includes the Agathyrsi , Geloni , Budini , and Neuri. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For members of the wider cultures of which the Scythians were part, see Scythian cultures. For other uses, see Scythian disambiguation.
For the tool, see Scythe. For other uses, see Scythe disambiguation. A nomadic people of the Pontic steppe. Peoples and societies. Religion and mythology.
Indo-European studies. Scholars Marija Gimbutas J. See also: Scythian cultures. See also: Trifunctional hypothesis. Main article: Scythian religion.
Main article: Scythian art. Main article: Scythian languages. See also: Sarmatians , Alans , and Ossetians. Further information: Sarmatism and Generations of Noah.
These tribes spoke Iranian languages, and their chief occupation was nomadic pastoralism. Though the 'Scythian period' in the history of Eastern Europe lasted little more than years, from the 7th to the 3rd centuries BC, the impression these horsemen made upon the history of their times was such that a thousand years after they had ceased to exist as a sovereign people, their heartland and the territories which they dominated far beyond it continued to be known as 'greater Scythia'.
For related groups in Central Asia and India, see The main Iranian-speaking peoples of the region at that period were the Scyths and the Sarmatians The country called after them was ruled by their principal tribe, the "Royal Scyths" Her.
The eastern neighbours of the "Royal Scyths", the Sauromatians, were also Iranian; their country extended over the steppe east of the Don and the Volga.
Herodotus seeks greater precision, and this essay is focussed on his Scythians, who belong to the North Pontic steppe These true Scyths seems to be those whom he calls Royal Scyths, that is, the group who claimed hegemony It is generally agreed, from what we know of their names, that these were people of Iranian stock They almost certainly spoke an Iranian language Retrieved October 4, Nature Communications.
Bibcode : NatCo Archaeologists have used the term "Scythic continuum" in a broad cultural sense to indicate the early nomadic cultures of the Eurasian steppe.
The term "Scythic" draws attention to the fact that there are elements - shapes of weapons, vessels, and ornaments, as well as lifestyle - common to both the eastern and western ends of the Eurasian steppe region.
However, the extension and variety of sites across Asia makes Scythian and Scythic terms too broad to be viable, and the more neutral "early nomadic" is preferable, since the cultures of the Northern Zone cannot be directly associated with either the historical Scythians or any specific archaeological culture defined as Saka or Scytho-Siberian.
Miller , theorized that the Scythians and their kindred, the Sauromatians, were Iranian-speaking peoples. This has been a popular point of view and continues to be accepted in linguistics and historical science The Scytho-Sarmatians were instrumental in the ethnogenesis of some of the modern peoples living today in the Caucasus.
Of importance in this group are the Ossetians, an Iranian-speaking group of people who are believed to have descended from the North Caucasian Alans.
Zoroastrian Heritage. Retrieved October 20, Retrieved September 1, Their gold belt buckles, jewelry, and harness decorations display sheep, griffins, and other animal designs that are similar in style to those used by the Scythians, a nomadic people living in the Kuban basin of the Caucasus region and the western section of the Eurasian plain during the greater part of the 1st millennium bc.
Accordingly, these groups are often assigned to the Scythian culture How far nomadic populations in central Asia and the eastern steppes may be of Scythian, Iranic, race, or contain such elements makes a precarious speculation.
This term encompasses different ethnic groups such as Scythians, Saka, Massagetae, and Yuezhi Bibcode : NatSR Bibcode : SciA